CIE A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021

Revision Notes

8.1.6 Molecular Ion Peak & Fragmentation

Identifying Molecules using Fragmentation

  • The molecular ion peak can be used to identify the molecular mass of a compound
  • However, different compounds may have the same molecular mass
  • To further determine the structure of the unknown compound, fragmentation is used
  • Fragments may appear due to the formation of characteristic fragments or the loss of small molecules
    • For example, a peak at 29 is due to the characteristic fragment C2H5+­­
    • Loss of small molecules give rise to peaks at 18 (H2O), 28 (CO), and 44 (CO2)

Alkanes

  • Simple alkanes are fragmented in mass spectroscopy by breaking the C-C bonds
  • M/e values of some of the common alkane fragments are given in the table below

m/e values of fragments table

Analytical Techniques - m_e values of fragments table, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Analytical Techniques Alkane Spectrum, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Mass spectrum showing fragmentation of alkanes

Halogenoalkanes

  • Halogenoalkanes have often multiple peaks around the molecular ion peak
  • This is caused by the fact that there are different isotopes of the halogens

Alcohols

  • Alcohols often tend to lose a water molecule giving rise to a peak at 18 below the molecular ion
  • Another common peak is found at m/e value 31 which corresponds to the CH2OH+­­ fragment
  • For example, the mass spectrum of propan-1-ol shows that the compound has fragmented in four different ways:
    • Loss of H to form a C3H7O+ fragment with m/e = 59
    • Loss of a water molecule to form a C3H6+ fragment with m/e = 42
    • Loss of a C2H5 to form a CH2OH+ fragment with m/e = 31
    • And the loss of CH2OH to form a C2H5+ fragment with m/e = 29

Author: Francesca

Fran has taught A level Chemistry in the UK for over 10 years. As head of science, she used her passion for education to drive improvement for staff and students, supporting them to achieve their full potential. Fran has also co-written science textbooks and worked as an examiner for UK exam boards.
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