Edexcel IGCSE Double Science: Biology

Revision Notes

2.8.2 Transport Systems in Flowering Plants


  • The roots, stem and leaves form a plant organ system for the transport of substances around the plant
  • Plants also possess two specialist transport vessels called the xylem and phloem
  • The xylem and phloem are arranged throughout the root, stem and leaves in groups called vascular bundles

Structure and function of the xylem

  • Xylem vessels transport water and minerals (pronounced: zi-lem) from the roots to the stem and leaves
  • The xylem has some key structural features
    • It is composed of dead cells which form hollow tubes
    • Xylem cells are strengthened by lignin and so are adapted for the transport of water in the transpiration stream

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Ruth graduated from Sheffield University with a degree in Biology and went on to teach Science in London whilst also completing an MA in innovation in Education. With 10 years of teaching experience across the 3 key science disciplines, Ruth decided to set up a tutoring business to support students in her local area. Ruth has worked with several exam boards and loves to use her experience to produce educational materials which make the mark schemes accessible to all students.

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