CIE IGCSE Chemistry

Revision Notes

3.3.1 Covalent Bonds

Single Covalent Bonds

Covalent compounds

  • Covalent compounds are formed when electrons are shared between atoms
  • Only non-metal elements participate in covalent bonding
  • As in ionic bonding, each atom gains a full outer shell of electrons
  • When two or more atoms are chemically bonded together, we describe them as ‘molecules’


Covalent bonding in non-metals, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notesCovalent bonding in non-metals



Dot-&-cross-Hydrogen_, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes 



Dot-&-cross-Chlorine_, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes



Dot & cross Water, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes


CH4 (methane):

Dot & cross Methane, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes


NH3 (ammonia):

Dot & cross Ammonia, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes 


Dot & cross Hydrochloric-Acid, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes 

Ionic & Covalent Compounds

  • Ionic compounds
    • Have high melting and boiling points so ionic compounds are usually solid at room temperature
    • Not volatile so they don’t evaporate easily
    • Usually water-soluble as both ionic compounds and water are polar
    • Conduct electricity in molten state or in solution as they have ions that can move and carry a charge
  • Covalent compounds
    • Have low melting and boiling points so covalent compounds are usually liquids or gases at room temperature
    • Usually volatile which is why many covalent organic compounds have distinct aromas
    • Usually not water-soluble as covalent compounds tend to be nonpolar but can dissolve in organic solvents
    • Cannot conduct electricity as all electrons are involved in bonding so there are no free electrons or ions to carry the charge

Author: Morgan

Morgan’s passion for the Periodic Table begun on his 10th birthday when he received his first Chemistry set. After studying the subject at university he went on to become a fully fledged Chemistry teacher, and now works in an international school in Madrid! In his spare time he helps create our fantastic resources to help you ace your exams.

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