Revision Notes

8.1 Vascular Tissue

Functions of Xylem & Phloem

  • Plants contain two types of transport vessel:
    • Xylem vessels – transport water and minerals (pronounced: zi-lem) from the roots to the stem and leaves
    • Phloem vessels – transport food materials (mainly sucrose and amino acids) made by the plant from photosynthesising leaves to non-photosynthesising regions in the roots and stem (pronounced: flow-em)
  • These vessels are arranged throughout the root, stem and leaves in groups called vascular bundles


Vascular tissue in a dicotyledonous plant, IGCSE & GCSE Biology revision notesVascular tissue in a dicotyledonous plant

Exam Tip

If you are asked to identify the xylem or phloem in a diagram showing a cross-section of a root, stem or leaf just remember that xylem is always on the inside and phloem is always on the outside.

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Jenna studied at Cardiff University before training to become a science teacher at the University of Bath specialising in Biology (although she loves teaching all three sciences at GCSE level!). Teaching is her passion, and with 10 years experience teaching across a wide range of specifications – from GCSE and A Level Biology in the UK to IGCSE and IB Biology internationally – she knows what is required to pass those Biology exams.

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