CIE IGCSE Biology

Revision Notes

7.1 Diet

Balanced Diet

  • A balanced diet consists of all of the food groups in the correct proportions
  • The necessary food groups are:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Dietary Fibre
    • Water

Balanced diet table, IGCSE & GCSE Biology revision notes

 

Specific vitamin and mineral requirements:
Specific vitamin & mineral requirements table, IGCSE & GCSE Biology revision notes

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Causes & Effects of Vitamin & Mineral Deficiencies

Causes & Effects of Vitamin & Mineral Deficiencies table, IGCSE & GCSE Biology revision notes

Effects of Malnutrition

  • Malnutrition is caused by not eating a balanced diet
  • There are different types of malnutrition depending on the cause of the imbalance
  • They include:
    • Starvation
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Constipation
    • Obesity

Effects of Malnutrition table, IGCSE & GCSE Biology revision notes

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Protein Energy Malnutrition

  • In many countries in the world, droughts, natural disasters, wars and a poor economy can lead to mass malnutrition in large areas of the country
  • The two types of malnutrition most common in these situations are termed ‘protein energy malnutrition’ (PEM)and they are:
    • Kwashiorkor – caused by a lack of protein in the diet, most common in children under 2. Often caused by poverty as high protein foods tend to be more expensive and scarcer. Children suffering from kwashiorkor are always underweight for their age but they often have a swollen abdomen as their diet may contain a lot of carbohydrate
    • Marasmus – the most severe form of PEM, where there is a lack of both protein and energy in the diet. People suffering from this have a much lower body weight than normal and look emaciated

Dietary Needs of Different Individuals

Dietary Needs of Different Individuals table, IGCSE & GCSE Biology revision notes

Author: Jenna

Jenna studied at Cardiff University before training to become a science teacher at the University of Bath specialising in Biology (although she loves teaching all three sciences at GCSE level!). Teaching is her passion, and with 10 years experience teaching across a wide range of specifications – from GCSE and A Level Biology in the UK to IGCSE and IB Biology internationally – she knows what is required to pass those Biology exams.
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