CIE IGCSE Biology

Revision Notes

13.2 The Urinary System

The Urinary System Structure

The urinary system in humans, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes

The urinary system in humans

 

Main structures involved:

The Urinary System table, IGCSE & GCSE Biology revision notes

 

Exam Tip

Note the difference between the ‘ureter’ and the ‘urethra’.

These two names are commonly confused by students so take care to learn them and know which tube is which – they are NOT interchangeable!

Changes in Urine

  • The colour and quantity of urine produced in the body can change quickly
  • Large quantities of urine are usually pale yellow in colour because it contains a lot of water and so the urea is less concentrated
  • Small quantities of urine are usually darker yellow / orange in colour because it contains little water and so the urea is more concentrated
  • There are various reasons why the concentration of urine will change, including:
    • Water intake – the more fluids drunk, the more water will be removed from the body and so a large quantity of pale yellow, dilute urine will be produced
    • Temperature – the higher the temperature the more water is lost in sweat and so less will appear in urine, meaning a smaller quantity of dark yellow, concentrated urine will be produced
    • Exercise – the more exercise done, the more water is lost in sweat and so less will appear in urine, meaning a smaller quantity of dark yellow, concentrated urine will be produced

Author: Jenna

Jenna studied at Cardiff University before training to become a science teacher at the University of Bath specialising in Biology (although she loves teaching all three sciences at GCSE level!). Teaching is her passion, and with 10 years experience teaching across a wide range of specifications – from GCSE and A Level Biology in the UK to IGCSE and IB Biology internationally – she knows what is required to pass those Biology exams.
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