### Binary Fission

- Bacteria multiply by a type of simple cell division known as
**binary fission** - In the right conditions, a bacterial cell prepares to divide by replicating its genetic material before it increases in size
- A copy of each piece of circular DNA moves to each end of the cell before the cytoplasm divides, and new cell walls form around each daughter cell

### Growing Bacterial Cultures in the Lab

- The effect of
**disinfectants**and**antibiotics**on microorganisms can be investigated using cultures of bacteria grown in the lab - In the right conditions, some species of bacteria (such as
*coli*) can multiply as much as once every**20 minutes**. This is ideal as large cultures of bacteria for study can be grown in relatively short periods of time - To multiply this quickly, bacteria require an adequate supply of
**nutrients**(carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins) and an**appropriate****temperature**(which varies depending on the species being grown)- Warmer temperatures promote faster growth, but in a school lab the maximum allowed temperature for growth is 25°C
- Above this temperature, more harmful pathogens are likely to grow

- Bacteria can be grown in a
**nutrient broth solution**or as colonies on an**agar gel plate**

### Uncontaminated Cultures & Aseptic Techniques

- It is vital that
**uncontaminated**cultures of microorganisms are grown in the lab - The presence of competing species can affect the growth of cultures, as well as the validity of any study performed on them
- Some important aseptic techniques are outlined in the table below:

#### Exam Tip

Only lifting the lid of the petri dish a little is vital to reduce the risk of contamination by other microorganisms. It is not to prevent air from entering, as air is still required by bacteria grown in school labs (more harmful bacteria tend to be anaerobic).

### Calculating Inhibition Zone Area

- The effectiveness of different
**antibiotics**,**antiseptics**or**disinfectants**can be determined by calculating the area of an inhibition zone around a disc of the substance being tested - To calculate the area of an inhibition zone you should use the equation:

**Calculating area**

#### Worked example

*Calculating the area of a clear zone is a far more accurate way of comparing the effect of different substances on bacterial growth than trying to judge by sight*

#### Exam Tip

It is far more accurate to measure the diameter of an inhibition zone than the radius, but remember to half it before using the area equation above.

You will need to take at least two measurements of the diameter of an inhibition zone and find the mean to calculate if the clear zone is not perfectly circular.

### Calculating Bacteria in a Population

- The average amount of time it takes for a bacterial cell in a population to divide is the
**mean division time** - The number of times a cell has divided and how many cells it produces can be determined if you know the
**mean division time**and**how long**division has been occurring

#### Exam Tip

Check that both the mean division time and the time the cell has been dividing have the same unit (either hours or minutes).

### Calculations in Standard Form

- If you are calculating the number of bacteria present in a population, you are likely to be handling very large numbers (as bacteria can multiply very quickly in certain conditions)
- You should be able to express an answer for the number of bacteria in standard form