CIE AS Chemistry (9701) exams from 2022

Revision Notes

3.7.1 Primary Amines

Production of Amines

  • Amines are compounds with the amine (-NH2) functional group 
  • They can be produced as a result of nucleophilic substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes when they are heated under pressure with ethanolic ammonia (NH3 in ethanol)
  • The halogen atom in halogenoalkanes is more electronegative than the carbon atom it is bonded to
  • The halogen, therefore, draws electron density from the C-X bond (where X is the halogen) towards itself
  • The carbon, therefore, has a partial positive charge and the halogen itself has a partial negative charge  
  • The lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom (in NH3) acts as a nucleophile and attacks the partial positively charged carbon 
  • As a result of this nucleophilic attack, the C-X bond is broken and the halogen is substituted by an amine group

Amine replaces the halogen in halogenoalkanes in a nucleophilic substitution reaction

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