CIE AS Chemistry (9701) exams from 2022

Revision Notes

3.1.2 Functional Groups and their Formulae

Functional Groups of Organic Compounds

  • Functional groups determine the physical and chemical properties of molecules
  • The table below shows a summary of common functional groups found in compounds
  • R is any other atom or group of atoms (except for hydrogen)

Functional groups found in compounds table

An Introduction to AS Level Organic Chemistry Functional Groups, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Formulae of Organic Compounds

  • The general formula is a formula that represents a homologous series of compounds using letters and numbers
    • Eg. the general formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2
    • A homologous series is a group of organic compounds that have the same functional group, the same general formula and the same chemical properties
  • The structural formula is a formula that shows how the atoms are bonded to each carbon atom in a molecule
  • The displayed formula is a 2D representation of an organic molecule showing all its atoms (by their symbols) and their bonds (by single, double or triple bonds)
  • The skeletal formula is a simplified displayed formula with all the carbon and hydrogen (C-H) bonds removed

Overview of the formulae of organic compounds table

An Introduction to AS Level Organic Chemistry Formulae of Organic Compounds, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Worked example: Drawing skeletal formulae of molecules

An Introduction to AS Level Organic Chemistry Worked example - Drawing skeletal formulae of molecules, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

An Introduction to AS Level Organic Chemistry Answer Worked example - Drawing skeletal formulae of molecules, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Worked example: Drawing displayed formulae of molecules

An Introduction to AS Level Organic Chemistry Worked example - Drawing displayed formulae of molecules, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

An Introduction to AS Level Organic Chemistry Answer Worked example - Drawing displayed formulae of molecules, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

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