CIE AS Chemistry (9701) exams from 2022

Revision Notes

1.3.5 Ionic Bonding Examples

Ionic Bonding: Examples

Sodium chloride

  • Sodium is a Group 1 metal
  • It loses its outer electron to form a sodium ion with a +1 charge (Na+)
  • Chlorine is a Group 7 non-metal
  • It gains 1 electron to form a chloride ion with a -1 charge (Cl)
  • The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces to form NaCl
  • The final ionic solid is neutral in charge

Chemical Bonding Sodium Chloride Dot & Cross Diagram, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Dot and cross diagram to show the ionic bonding in sodium chloride

Magnesium oxide

  • Magnesium is a Group 2 metal
  • It loses its 2 outer electrons to form a magnesium ion with a +2 charge (Mg2+)
  • Oxygen is a Group 6 non-metal
  • It gains 2 electrons to form an oxide ion with a -2 charge (O2-)
  • The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other to by electrostatic forces to form MgO
  • The final ionic solid is neutral in charge

Chemical Bonding Magnesium Oxide Dot & Cross Diagram, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Dot and cross diagram to show the ionic bonding in magnesium oxide

Calcium fluoride

  • Calcium is a Group 2 metal
  • It loses its 2 outer electrons to form a calcium ion with a +2 charge (Ca2+)
  • Fluorine is a Group 7 non-metal
  • It gains 1 electron to form a fluoride ion with a -1 charge (F)
  • As before, the positive and negative ions are attracted to each other
  • To cancel out the 2+ charge of the calcium ion, 2 fluoride ions are needed
  • Calcium fluoride is made when 1 calcium ion and 2 fluoride ions form an ionic bond, CaF2
  • The final ionic solid of CaF2 is neutral in charge

Chemical Bonding Calcium Fluoride Dot and Cross Diagram, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Dot and cross diagram to show the ionic bonding in calcium fluoride

Worked example: Dot & cross lithium nitride

Chemical Bonding Worked example - Dot & cross lithium nitride, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Answer

  • Lithium is a Group 1 metal
  • It loses its outer electron to form a lithium ion with a +1 charge (Li+)
  • Nitrogen is a Group 5 non-metal
  • It gains 3 electrons to form an nitride ion with a -3 charge (N3-)
  • To cancel out the 3- charge of the nitride ion, 3 lithium ions are needed
  • Lithium nitride is made when 1 nitride ion and 3 lithium ions form an ionic bond
  • The final ionic solid of Li3N is neutral in charge

Chemical Bonding Lithium Nitride Cross Diagram, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Dot and cross diagram to show the ionic bonding in lithium nitride

Worked example: Dot & cross aluminium oxide

Chemical Bonding Worked example - Dot & cross aluminium oxide, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Answer

  • Aluminium is a Group 3 metal
  • It loses its outer electron to form an aluminium ion with a +3 charge (Al3+)
  • Oxygen is a Group 6 non-metal
  • It gains 2 electrons to form an oxide ion with a -2 charge (O2-)
  • To cancel out the negative and positive charges, 2 aluminium and 3 oxygen ions are needed
  • Aluminium oxide is made when 2 aluminium ions and 3 oxygen ions form an ionic bond
  • The final ionic solid of Al2O3 is neutral in charge

Chemical Bonding Aluminium Oxide Cross Diagram, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Dot and cross diagram to show the ionic bonding in aluminium oxide

Author: Francesca

Fran has taught A level Chemistry in the UK for over 10 years. As head of science, she used her passion for education to drive improvement for staff and students, supporting them to achieve their full potential. Fran has also co-written science textbooks and worked as an examiner for UK exam boards.
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