CIE AS Chemistry (9701) exams from 2022

Revision Notes

1.3.15 Inter & Intramolecular Forces

Comparing Bonds to Intermolecular Forces

Intramolecular forces

  • Intramolecular forces are forces within a molecule
  • Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between positive (cations) and negative (anions) ions in an ionic crystal lattice
    • These ions are formed by transferring the electrons from one species to the other
  • Covalent bonds are formed when the outer electrons of two atoms are shared
  • Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction of positively charged metal ions and their delocalised electrons in a metal lattice

Chemical Bonding Intramolecular Forces, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Intramolecular forces

Intermolecular forces

  • Intermolecular forces are forces between molecules and are also called van der Waals’ forces
  • Permanent dipole – permanent dipole are the attractive forces between two neighbouring molecules with a permanent dipole
  • Hydrogen bonds are a special type of permanent dipole – permanent dipole forces
  • Instantaneous dipole – induced dipole (London dispersion) forces are the attractive forces between a temporary dipole and a neighbouring molecule with an induced dipole

Chemical Bonding Intermolecular Forces (1), downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes Chemical Bonding Intermolecular Forces (2), downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes Chemical Bonding Intermolecular Forces (3), downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Intermolecular forces

  • In general, the intramolecular forces are stronger than intermolecular forces
  • The strengths of the types of bond or force are as follows:

 

Chemical Bonding Strengths of different types of bonds, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

The varying strengths of different types of bonds

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Fran has taught A level Chemistry in the UK for over 10 years. As head of science, she used her passion for education to drive improvement for staff and students, supporting them to achieve their full potential. Fran has also co-written science textbooks and worked as an examiner for UK exam boards.
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