CIE A Level Chemistry (9701) exams from 2022

Revision Notes

7.6.7 Reactions of Amides

Reactions of Amides

  • Amides are formed from the condensation reaction of carboxylic acids or acyl chlorides with ammonia or amines
  • The amide group (CONR2) in these compounds can undergo reactions including
    • Hydrolysis with aqueous alkali or aqueous acid
    • Reduction with LiAlH4

Hydrolysis of amides

  • The -CON- group in substituted amides links two hydrocarbon sections of their molecules together
  • This amide link can be broken down by hydrolysis by refluxing it with an acid or alkali
  • The products of a non-substituted amide are:
    • Carboxylic acid
    • Ammonia
  • The products of a substituted amide are:
    • Carboxylic acid
    • Primary amine

Nitrogen Compounds - Hydrolysis of Substituted and Non-substituted Amides, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Hydrolysis of substituted and non-substituted amides

  • Ammonia will react in excess acid to form an ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid will get deprotonated in excess base to form a carboxylate ion

 

Nitrogen Compounds - Hydrolysis of Amides, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Amides are hydrolysed to carboxylic acids and ammonia or primary amine when refluxed with acid or alkali

Reduction of amides

  • The C=O group in amides can be reduced by the strong reducing agent LiAlH4 to form an amine
  • The products of a non-substituted amide are:
    • A primary amine and water
  • The products of a substituted amide are:
    • A secondary amine and water

 

Amides can be reduced to amines using LiAlH4

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