CIE A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021

Revision Notes

8.1.5 M + 2 Peak

Detecting Bromine & Chlorine Atoms Using M+2 Peak

  • The presence of bromine or chlorine atoms in a compound gives rise to a [M+2] and possibly [M+4] peak 

Chlorine

  • Chlorine exists as two isotopes, 35Cl and 37Cl
  • A compound containing one chlorine atom will therefore have two molecular ion peaks due to the two different isotopes it can contain
    • 35Cl = M+ peak
    • 37Cl = [M+2] peak
    • The ratio of the peak heights is 3:1 (as the relative abundance of 35Cl is 3x greater than that of 37Cl)
  • A compound containing two chlorine atoms will have three molecular ion peaks due to the different combinations of chlorine isotopes they can contain
    • 35Cl + 35Cl = M+ peak
    • 35Cl + 37Cl = [M+2] peak
    • 37Cl + 37Cl = [M+4] peak
    • The ratio of the peak heights is 9:6:1

Analytical Techniques Mass Spectrum Chlorine, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Mass spectrum of compounds containing one chlorine atom (1) and two chlorine atoms (2)

Bromine

  • Bromine too exists as two isotopes, 79Br and 81Br
  • A compound containing one bromine atom will have two molecular ion peaks
    • 79Br = M+  peak
    • 81Br = [M+2] peak
    • The ratio of the peak heights is 1:1 (they are of similar heights as their relative abundance is the same!)
  • A compound containing two bromine atoms will have three molecular ion peaks
    • 79Br + 79Br= M+ peak
    • 79Br+ 81Br = [M+2] peak
    • 81Br + 81Br= [M+4] peak
    • The ratio of the peak heights is 1:2:1

Analytical Techniques Mass Spectrum Bromine, downloadable AS & A Level Chemistry revision notes

Mass spectrum of compounds containing one bromine atom

Author: Francesca

Fran has taught A level Chemistry in the UK for over 10 years. As head of science, she used her passion for education to drive improvement for staff and students, supporting them to achieve their full potential. Fran has also co-written science textbooks and worked as an examiner for UK exam boards.
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