Specification Point 2.22C (Paper 2C Only):
Know that most metals are extracted from ores found in the Earth’s Crust and that unreactive metals are often found as the uncombined element

Extraction of Ores

Extraction of Ores from Earth’s Crust:

  • The Earth’s Crust contains metals and metal compounds such as Gold, Iron Oxide and Aluminium Oxide, but when found in the Earth, these are often mixed with other substances.
  • To be useful, the metals have to be extracted from their ore through processes such as electrolysis, using a blast furnace or by reacting with more reactive material.
  • Extraction is a reduction process.
  • Unreactive metals do not have to be extracted as they are often found as the uncombined element as they do not easily react with other metals to form impure compounds.
Iron ore, Edexcel IGCSE Chemistry

An example of an Iron Ore that is impure so is extracted using a blast furnace along with limestone, coke and air

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Author: Jamie

Jamie got a First class degree in Chemistry from Oxford University before going on to teach chemistry full time as a professional tutor. He’s put together these handy revision notes to match the Edexcel IGCSE Chemistry specification so you can learn exactly what you need to know for your exams.