#### Revision Notes

##### What are Transformations of Graphs?

A transformation is simply a change of some sort. When it comes to graphs you need to know about two different sorts of transformation:

• Reflections (using either the x-axis or y-axis as a mirror line)
• Translations (moving the whole curve in the x and/or y direction)

You should be able to recognise these two different sorts of transformation and apply them to a given graph.

##### How do we recognise and apply them?

If you are given the graph of a function, say y = f(x) then:

1. REFLECTIONS look like this:
• In x-axis:  y = -f(x) (minus outside the function)
• In y-axis:  y = f(-x) (minus inside the function)
2. TRANSLATIONS
•  + a units in the  x direction: y = f(xa)
•  + b units in the  y direction: y = f(x) + b
3. BEWARE the highlighted change of sign!

## Want to aim for a Level 9?

See if you’ve got what it takes. Test yourself with our topic questions.

### Author: Simon

After 24 years teaching A Level Further Maths, Maths whizz Simon focused his attention on tutoring. He’s helped thousands of young people make sense of Maths and now he’s helping you too – aren’t you lucky! He’s even worked as an Edexcel examiner, so knows exactly what they’re looking for.