Grade seven, Edexcel GCSE Maths

Revision Notes

What are Transformations of Graphs?

A transformation is simply a change of some sort. When it comes to graphs you need to know about two different sorts of transformation:

  • Reflections (using either the x-axis or y-axis as a mirror line)
  • Translations (moving the whole curve in the x and/or y direction)

You should be able to recognise these two different sorts of transformation and apply them to a given graph.

How do we recognise and apply them?

If you are given the graph of a function, say y = f(x) then:

  1. REFLECTIONS look like this:
    • In x-axis:  y = -f(x) (minus outside the function)
    • In y-axis:  y = f(-x) (minus inside the function)
    •  + a units in the  x direction: y = f(xa)
    •  + b units in the  y direction: y = f(x) + b
  3. BEWARE the highlighted change of sign!


Transforming Graphs Example 1, IGCSE & GCSE Maths revision notes

Translation-of-Graph-(before), IGCSE & GCSE Maths revision notes

Transforming Graphs Example 2, IGCSE & GCSE Maths revision notes

Translation-of-Graph-(after), IGCSE & GCSE Maths revision notes


Edexcel GCSE Maths Notes

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