Solid, Liquid, Gas & Aqueous

  • State symbols are written after each formula in chemical equations to show which physical state each substance is in.
  • Brackets are used and they are not usually subscript although you may come across them written in this way.
  • Aqueous means the substance is dissolved in water.
Aqueous Table, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes
  • Symbol equations should be included when writing chemical equations.
  • An example of a reaction with state symbols is the reaction of copper carbonate with hydrochloric acid:

CuCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ⟶ CuCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

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Morgan Curtin Chemistry

Author: Morgan

Morgan’s passion for the Periodic Table begun on his 10th birthday when he received his first Chemistry set. After studying the subject at university he went on to become a fully fledged Chemistry teacher, and now works in an international school in Madrid! In his spare time he helps create our fantastic resources to help you ace your exams.