Properties of the Group 0 Elements

  • The Noble gases are in Group VIII (or Group O) and have very low melting and boiling points.
  • They are all monatomic, colourless, non-flammable gases.
  • The Group 0 elements all have full outer shells.
  • This electronic configuration is extremely stable so these elements are unreactive and are inert.
  • Elements participate in reactions to complete their outer shells by losing, gaining, or sharing electrons.
  • The atoms of noble gases already have complete outer shells hence they do not take part in chemical reactions.
  • Electronic configurations of the Noble gases:
    • He 2
    • Ne 2, 8
    • Ar 2, 8, 8
    • Kr 2, 8, 18, 8
    • Xe 2, 8, 18, 18, 8

The-Periodic-Table-of-noble-gases, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes

The Noble gases occupy the Group furthest to the right on the Periodic Table

  • Although chemically inert, the Noble gases do have several applications and uses.
  • Helium is used for filling balloons and weather balloons as it is less dense than air and does not burn.
  • Neon, argon and xenon are used in advertising signs.
  • Argon is used to provide an inert atmosphere for welding.
  • It is also used to fill electric light bulbs as it is inert.

Trends in Group 0

  • As with other groups there are trends in the physical properties of the noble gases.
  • They show an increase in boiling point as we move down the group due to an increase in the relative atomic mass.
  • This leads to an increase in intermolecular forces due to there being more electrons.
  • Elements further down the group would therefore be expected to have higher boiling points but which still lie below 0ºC.
  • Helium has the lowest boiling point of all elements at -269ºC while radon boils at around -60ºC.

Graph BP Noble Gases, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes

Graph showing the trend in the boiling points of the Noble gases

  • Since the Group 8 elements are all gases, the particles are widely spaced so they have low densities.
  • Density increases moving down the group.
  • Elements further down the group would therefore be expected to have higher densities.
  • Helium is the lightest noble gas and radon is the heaviest of all element gases.

Graph Density Noble Gases, IGCSE & GCSE Chemistry revision notes

Graph showing the trend in the density of the Noble gases

AQA GCSE Chemistry Notes

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Morgan Curtin Chemistry

Author: Morgan

Morgan’s passion for the Periodic Table begun on his 10th birthday when he received his first Chemistry set. After studying the subject at university he went on to become a fully fledged Chemistry teacher, and now works in an international school in Madrid! In his spare time he helps create our fantastic resources to help you ace your exams.